Research suggests movement and learning coincide. As the year winds down, these movement strategies may be useful in lesson planning.
Check out This is a two column chart where students state their opinion, but then must be able to support it. It can also be used as an organizer in preparation for a persuasive essay. A sentence that was meaningful or sums up the big idea. A word that was powerful. In a small group share what you wrote and why.
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Encourage the rest of the group to comment. Continue in similar fashion with phrase and word. After the group has shared, look for any common themes and points of discussion. As a whole group, look at what each student wrote and reflect on the overall responses. You may want to consider using Padlet, for example, to share each students sentence, phrase and word.
After reading a passage students write an open-ended question at the top of the page. The paper is passed around the room and students have two minutes to answer the question and pass it on. Students like this strategy and are eager to read the responses. The discussion at the end is usually successful. They are used to reinforce content as well as to develop group problem-solving strategies. Students are given a situation or event, e. During a 3-Minute Pause students summarize, make connections, share something interesting, or ask a question.
This strategy is quick and easy to incorporate into your lessons. The product is what readers understand and know after reading a text the mental text representation , whereas the comprehension processes concern the cognitive activities that readers deploy to construct that representation Rapp et al.
Successful readers are metacognitive, goal-oriented, and flexible, and they constantly monitor their mental representation Pearson et al. Importantly, they make text-connecting inferences by connecting key ideas within the text, and knowledge-based inferences by relating their prior knowledge to these ideas Perfetti et al.
Struggling readers also engage in these comprehension processes and strategies, but they tend to do so to a lesser extent or are less adept. For instance, struggling readers often do not use all their relevant prior knowledge to make sense of a story Pearson et al.
They also are less proficient at comprehension monitoring e. Furthermore, low-comprehending readers are less proficient at judging what is important in texts, and they have difficulties synthesizing information when they read texts with a complex structure Pearson et al. However, not all low-comprehending readers struggle with all of these issues, nor do they form a homogeneous group of readers.
For example, McMaster et al. The first type are labeled paraphrasers : they remain close to the literal meaning of the text by rereading or paraphrasing it and make relatively few text-connecting and knowledge-based inferences. Elaborators, in contrast, generate more text-connecting inferences and go beyond the text by making knowledge-based inferences—as proficient readers do—but often do not succeed in doing so correctly. From an educational point of view, it is important to distinguish between subgroups of struggling readers.
For example, although the scores of elaborating and paraphrasing struggling readers on after-reading comprehension tests are similarly low McMaster et al. In the early grades of elementary school the focus of reading instruction lies on technical aspects of learning to read, such as sound-letter correspondences, decoding, and grammar. In later years children read for the purpose of comprehending and learning content from texts on history, geography, science, and other subject areas.
Whereas in the early grades children mainly read narrative texts, in later grades expository texts become dominant. Narrative and expository texts differ in the ways they are structured, the causal coherence of information, the vocabulary, and the presence of a protagonist Wolfe, There are several reasons why expository texts pose a challenge. One reason is unfamiliarity: Children are often unfamiliar with expository texts as most reading activities in the early grades in elementary school revolve around narrative texts Duke, b ; Williams et al.
Emotion and narrative fiction: Interactive influences before, during, and after reading.
In addition, expository texts show considerable variability in their local and global structure: They often incorporate a combination of different types of text structures, such as comparison and contrast, cause and effect, problem and solution, and sequence and description Duke, a ; Meyer, , ; Williams et al. Moreover, narratives may evoke more knowledge-based elaborations because children have more background knowledge relevant to the content of narratives than of expository texts.
Prior research on comprehension processes and on-line strategy use of young children has focused on the comprehension of narrative texts e. Research on the comprehension of expository texts in the early grades of elementary school first and second grades is particularly scarce but see e. Specific questions are whether the distinction between paraphrasers and elaborators already exists at a very young age, and whether processing patterns apply to expository as well as narrative texts. These issues were investigated in a think-aloud study in which second-grade pupils 1 read narrative and expository texts in a sentence-by-sentence manner and were asked to express their thoughts after each sentence.
Spatialization: A Strategy for Reading Narrative
To determine possible factors contributing to comprehension differences, we also had them complete a test battery assessing general cognitive and language-related proficiencies. Before testing, the parents or guardians signed a letter of active consent. In the think-aloud session participants read two expository and two narrative texts.
The four experimental texts were matched on readability and length. The cards were presented in flip-over photo albums. A practice text was presented in a separate photo album. Text comprehension was assessed by posing five questions after each text.
Reading Narrative Texts
Before the test session started, an examiner explained the think-aloud procedure to the child, and modeled it by reading part of the practice text. The child practiced the procedure on the remainder of the practice text. Think-aloud responses were audio-recorded. Subsequently, two raters parsed the remaining transcripts. Problematic cases were resolved through discussions.
After this initial parsing procedure the idea units were coded into eight categories using coding sheets based on guidelines by Linderholm and van den Broek , McMaster et al. Explaining the Sentence indicates that the reader provides an explanation for the contents of the current sentence by connecting its meaning to the preceding text.
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We speak of an inference when the reader provides an explanation for the contents of the current sentence on the basis of background knowledge Elaborative Inference or anticipates or predicts what will occur next in the text Predictive Inference. These elaborative and predictive inferences can be characterized as either valid or invalid in the context of the text. The category Comments includes associations, affective responses, evaluative comments, and metacognitive comments by the reader.
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The category Question applies when the reader asks or implies a question about the content of the text. Other is a miscellaneous category that includes all other responses, as well as passages that are inaudible. Two independent raters coded the remaining transcripts. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Only the first categorized idea unit of the responses for each sentence was used in the analyses.
The reason for this was that the first response is the most spontaneous, and this procedure results in equal numbers of responses for all participants, thereby making comparisons between participants possible, see Ericsson and Simon, , Reported scores are raw scores with a maximum possible score of The test had been administered by the schools at the end of Grade 1. Reported scores are skills scores. The test consists of three modules: an initial module for all children, an easier follow-up module for weak comprehenders, and a more difficult follow-up module for average and good comprehenders.
In six of the nine schools, the children had taken this test at the end of Grade 1.
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