Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications

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HRTFs are space. A spherical thin-plate spline STPS was used to measures at discrete points in space, while space itself is interpolate the HRTFs a method similar to that described in continuous. We describe the acoustic and psychophysical [8]. The analytical interpolation errors in the magnitude errors associated with a method of HRTF interpolation that frequency spectrum of the interpolated HRTFs were calculated employs a spherical thin-plate spline. Errors in the and compared with the psychoacoustical localization errors.

These filtering components were extracted according to Middlebrooks [9]. The HRTF varies with the direction of recording microphones in the ear canal. Unfortunately, this the incident wave front so that each direction in space is method also removes psychophysically relevant interaural uniquely specified by an HRTF. The HRTFs can be recorded differences that arise from the natural asymmetries of the outer with small microphones close to the eardrum [2, 3] or at the ears of some listeners. To ensure that this was not an issue for entrance of the ear canal [4]. When a sound presented over the subjects in this study, the fidelity of these HRTF estimates headphones is filtered using the HRTFs for the right and left were always confirmed by measuring the localization ears of the listener, the auditory illusion of a sound source performance of the subjects in VAS generated using these located away from the body in virtual auditory space is HRTFs see below.

In this study the HRTFs were measured generated at a location corresponding to the that from which for the right and left ears of 5 human subjects for a total of the HRTFs were measured. However, as the HRTFs are discrete locations in space. Measurements were carried out in measured at discrete locations in space and space is an anechoic chamber and the sound source was positioned continuous, the generation of auditory stimuli at arbitrary using a computer controlled robot arm see [10].

Test stimuli unmeasured locations in space e. Previous work averaged over eight repetitions [11, 12]. The head position was has looked at the interpolation of HRTFs using different stabilised and monitored over the measurement period. Frequency domain approaches have used straightforward 2. Generally, the better There were two steps in generating the interpolated VAS for approaches account for the spherical geometry of the data.

Firstly, the frequency domain magnitude There are not many systematic reports of the psychoacoustical components of the HRTFs were compressed using principal errors associated with HRTF interpolation but see [5,6]. The phase components of the HRTF were not of locations. That is to say, the interpolation data set of size used, instead, a minimum-phase filter approximation was used.

These numbers interpolated using a spherical thin-plate spline STPS of locations covered a range of spatial resolution varying from according to Wahba [15].

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Additionally, the interaural time about 10 to 45 degrees between neighboring locations. Each delay was estimated using a cross correlation of the impulse subset was equally distributed around the sphere, the coverage response functions for the left and right ear. The ITD values of the space becoming more sparse with the decreasing were also interpolated using the spherical thin-plate spline. The root-mean-square error of the The benefits of the STPS are: 1 the approximation is magnitude components of the HRTFs at the test locations was continuous in all directions and is therefore suitable for calculated using: modelling spherically directional data and 2 the spline is a global approximation incorporating all data around the sphere to provide one interpolation value.

As for the nearest neighbor interpolation, the calculations followed the positions, hi , j is the measured HRTFs on the test positions: i same procedure outlined above except that the interpolation labels the test location and j labels the frequency bins of the was based on the 12 nearest neighbors for a given target amplitude HRTF description.

There was a steady increase in the error as the number of measured positions contributing to the spline functions 2. At less than Performance positions the overall error increased markedly. There was fairly good correspondence and the interpolated HRTFs, the localization accuracy of 5 of the error magnitudes across subjects in terms of both the human subjects was measured for stimuli presented in VAS overall errors evident for any one subset and also in the range rendered using the various HRTFs.

Subjects were first trained over which the errors grew markedly. The STPS was to localise a short, white noise burst ms; HzkHz significantly better than the nearest neighbor interpolation for presented in the free field in a darkened anechoic chamber. HRTF data sets of small size.

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There are small differences Subjects pointed their nose towards the perceived location of between the two interpolation methods for large HRTF data the sound and the location of the head was monitored using an sets. A localization test has not been performed to evaluate the electromagnetic tracking system see [10] for detailed psychophysical significance of the differences between the description.

Localization performance was assessed using a two interpolation methods. The 5 5 experimental paradigm for VAS was identical to that above, 4 4 with the exception that stimuli were presented over in-ear tube-phones ER2-Etymotic Research rather than from the 3 3 50 50 free field speaker in the anechoic chamber. Share This Paper.

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. Figures and Tables. Citations Publications citing this paper. McAnally , Russell L. Martin , Jason B. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality.

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The sonel mapping acoustical modeling method Bill Kapralos. Jin , Simon Carlile. References Publications referenced by this paper.

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Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications
Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications

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